What works for whom?

It can be interesting to venture outside the general evaluation literature. Here’s Gordon Paul (1967, p. 111) on what works for whom:

“What is the appropriate question to be asked of outcome research? In all its complexity, the question towards which all outcome research should ultimately be directed is the following: What treatment, by whom, is most effective for this individual with that specific problem, and under which set of circumstances?”


Paul, G. L. (1967). Strategy of outcome research in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31(2), 109–118.