Opportunity hoarding / social closure

“In order for certain jobs to confer high income and special advantages, it is important for their incumbents to have various means of excluding others from access to them. This is also sometimes referred to as a process of social closure, in which access to a position becomes restricted. One way of doing this is by creating requirements that are very costly for people to fulfill.”

– Wright, E. O. (2009, p. 104). [Understanding Class: Towards an Integrated Analytical Approach. New Left Review, 60, 101–116.]