Let’s not replace “impact evaluation” with “contribution analysis”

Giel Ton has written an interesting blog post arguing that we should shift from talking about “impact evaluation” to “contribution analysis”, in the form devised by Mayne. Ton defines contribution analysis as following this process:

“make a good theory of change, identify key assumptions in this theory of change, and focus M&E and research on these key assumptions.”

My first thought was, this definition is remarkably broad! It’s the same as for any theory-based approach (or theory-driven – evaluation is awash with synonyms) where you start with a theory of change (ToC) and test and refine it. See, e.g., what Fitz-Gibbon and Morris (1975), Chen and Rossi (1980), and many others were proposing before Mayne. They all criticise “black box” approaches that lob methods at a programme before stopping to think what it might do and how, so I wondered what makes Ton’s (and/or Mayne’s) proposal different to these broad umbrella approaches that include all methods, mixed, blended, interwoven, shaken, or stirred – so long as a ToC is used throughout.

One recurring issue is people endlessly rocking up with yet another panacea: “Behold! ACME Programmeβ„’ will finally sort out your social problem!” Effect size, 0.1 SDs, if you’re lucky. A piece by Thomas Delahais (2023) helped clarify for me what’s different about the contribution analysis approach and how it helps address the panacea phenomenon: alternative explanations of change are treated as being as important as the new programme being investigated. That’s a fun challenge, for all evaluation approaches, qual, quant and RCTs included. For instance, we would design statistical analyses to tell us something about mechanisms that are involved in a range of activities in and around a new programme. We would explore how a new programme interacts with existing activities. These ideas sound very sensible to me – and are often done through implementation and process evaluation. But taking seriously the broader context and alternative explanations of change is much broader than contribution analysis. We might call the activity something like “evaluation”.


Chen, H.-T., & Rossi, P. H. (1980). The Multi-Goal, Theory-Driven Approach to Evaluation: A Model Linking Basic and Applied Social Science. Social Forces, 59, 106–122.

Delahais, T. (2023). Contribution Analysis. LIEPP Methods Brief, 44.

Fitz-Gibbon, C. T., & Morris, L. L. (1975). Theory-based evaluation. Evaluation Comment, 5(1), 1–4. Reprinted in Fitz-Gibbon, C. T., & Morris, L. L. (1996). Theory-based evaluation. Evaluation Practice, 17(2), 177–184.